Killer food bug mystery: Experts probe fatal strain of C.diff only found in Scotland
The clostridium difficile 332 strain sparked a national alert earlier this year when three people died after contracting the infection while in hospital.
The NHS has refused to identify the two hospitals involved on the grounds of “patient confidentiality”, but both are in Fife.
The strain, which has been named ribotype 332, has struck five times since December last year.
“It’s passed out in infected faeces and can survive for a long time on any surface such as toilet areas, clothing, sheets and furniture.”
Chief medical officer, Professor Sally Davies, said: “The harsh reality is infections are increasingly developing that cannot be treated.”
Royal Perth Hospital superbug cases at 160
But on Friday he also released figures showing that up to 10 per cent of RPH’s 541 multi-day patients may now be T90 carriers, with 21 confirmed, and a further 32 being tested for VRE, and he conceded that most would have caught the bug in hospital.
Ed: VRE is spread through several means, including urine and feces of infected patients.
Poop pills are latest way to cure dangerous C. diff infections, new study shows
“At first I thought it was kind of nasty, a little gross,” said Mulligan, an engineering technologist who was sick for five months this year with the infection that causes severe diarrhea, cramping and headaches. “But at that point, I would have done anything.”
Ed: Wouldn’t it be better to keep people from getting this sick in the first place?
The potential spread of infection caused by aerosol contamination of surfaces after flushing a domestic toilet.
Although a single flush reduced the level of micro-organisms in the toilet bowl water when contaminated at concentrations reflecting pathogen shedding, large numbers of micro-organisms persisted on the toilet bowl surface and in the bowl water which were disseminated into the air by further flushes.
The role played by contaminated surfaces in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens
…recent studies have demonstrated that several major nosocomial pathogens are shed by patients and contaminate hospital surfaces at concentrations sufficient for transmission, survive for extended periods, persist despite attempts to disinfect or remove them, and can be transferred to the hands of healthcare workers. Evidence is accumulating that contaminated surfaces make an important contribution to the epidemic and endemic transmission of Clostridium difficile, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and norovirus…
C. difficile was recoverable from air sampled at heights up to 25 cm above the toilet seat. The highest numbers of C. difficile were recovered from air sampled immediately following flushing, and then declined 8-fold after 60 min and a further 3-fold after 90 min. Surface contamination with C. difficile occurred within 90 min after flushing, demonstrating that relatively large droplets are released which then contaminate the immediate environment. The mean numbers of droplets emitted upon flushing by the lidless toilets in clinical areas were 15-47, depending on design. C. difficile aerosolization and surrounding environmental contamination occur when a lidless toilet is flushed.
Hand hygiene compliance rates both before and after contact with the environment and patient increased every year from 2008 to 2011. However, the rate of MRSA bacteremia did not change during that time period. While CDI (colostrum difficile) rates decreased in 2009, they did not significantly decrease in 2010 or 2011.
According to the CDC, HAIs affect between 5 to 10 percent of hospitalized patients each year, leading to approximately 99,000 deaths. Various initiatives to control hospital infections have been set in place by the CDC and other health agencies, but the authors of the JAMA study wrote that “much more remains to be done.”
A study based on hospital discharge data showed the rate of C. difficile infection in 2001 was 4.5 per 1,000 hospital admissions in 2001, according to Kelly Daniels, PharmD, of the University of Texas at Austin, but rose to 8.2 per 1,000 admissions in 2010.